Yemen is located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, Oman to the northeast, the Arabian Sea to the south, and the Red Sea to the west. Yemen’s geographical coordinates range from approximately 12°N to 18°N latitude and 42°E to 54°E longitude.



Yemen has a diverse climate due to its varied topography, ranging from arid desert plains to high mountain ranges. The coastal areas experience a hot and humid climate, while the interior regions have a dry and arid climate with high temperatures. The mountainous regions in the west enjoy a more temperate climate with cooler temperatures.


Yemen’s wildlife is adapted to its arid and rugged terrain. Common species include Arabian leopards, Arabian gazelles, Nubian ibexes, and Arabian wolves. The country is also home to various bird species, reptiles, and insects.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Yemen is the Wadi Hadhramaut, which flows for approximately 370 kilometers through the eastern part of the country. It is a seasonal river, with water flowing mainly during the rainy season.

Highest Mountains

Yemen’s highest mountain is Jabal An-Nabi Shu’ayb, also known as Mount Al-Nabi Shu’ayb, located in the Haraz mountain range in the western part of the country. It has an elevation of approximately 3,666 meters (12,028 feet) above sea level.



Yemen has a rich history dating back to ancient times. Archaeological evidence suggests that the region was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic era, with early human settlements dating back over 7,000 years.

Ancient Kingdoms

Yemen was home to several ancient kingdoms, including the Sabaean, Himyarite, and Ma’in civilizations, which flourished between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. These kingdoms were known for their advanced agriculture, trade networks, and monumental architecture, such as the ancient city of Marib.

Islamic Period

Yemen became an important center of Islamic civilization following the advent of Islam in the 7th century CE. It was ruled by various Islamic dynasties, including the Umayyad, Abbasid, and Fatimid caliphates, and later by local dynasties such as the Rasulid and Tahirid dynasties.

Ottoman and British Rule

Yemen came under Ottoman rule in the 16th century and remained part of the Ottoman Empire until the early 20th century. In the 19th century, the British established control over the southern port city of Aden and its surrounding territories, forming the Aden Protectorate.

Modern Yemen

Yemen gained independence from Britain and the Ottomans in the mid-20th century, with the northern region becoming the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the southern region forming the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen). The two countries were unified in 1990 to form the Republic of Yemen.

Recent Conflict

Yemen has faced significant challenges in recent years, including political instability, economic hardship, and civil conflict. Since 2015, Yemen has been embroiled in a devastating civil war between the internationally recognized government, backed by a Saudi-led coalition, and Houthi rebels, who control much of the northwestern part of the country.


Yemen has a population of approximately 30 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnic groups, including Arab, Afro-Arab, and Afro-Asian. The majority of Yemenis are ethnically Arab, with Arabic being the official language. Islam is the predominant religion, with the majority of Yemenis adhering to the Sunni branch of Islam, while a significant minority follows the Shia branch.

Administrative Divisions

Yemen is divided into 22 governorates, each with its own governor and administrative structure. The governorates are further divided into districts, sub-districts, and villages. The largest governorates by population include Sana’a, Taiz, and Aden.

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Sana’a
  2. Aden
  3. Taiz
  4. Al Hudaydah
  5. Ibb
  6. Mukalla
  7. Dhamar
  8. Sayyan
  9. Zinjibar
  10. Sa’dah

Education Systems

Education in Yemen is provided by the government and is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. However, access to education has been severely affected by the ongoing conflict, with many schools damaged or closed. Yemen has several universities, including Sana’a University and Aden University.



Yemen has several airports, including Sana’a International Airport, Aden International Airport, and Taiz International Airport. However, many of these airports have been affected by the conflict and are not fully operational.


Yemen has a limited railway network, with the historic Aden–Taiz railway being the only major line. However, this railway is currently not operational.


Yemen has a network of highways connecting major cities and towns. However, many roads have been damaged or blocked due to the conflict, making transportation difficult.


Yemen has several major ports, including the Port of Aden, Port of Hodeidah, and Port of Mukalla, which play a crucial role in the country’s economy by facilitating trade and commerce.

Country Facts

  • Population: 30 million
  • Capital: Sana’a
  • Language: Arabic
  • Religion: Islam (predominantly Sunni)
  • Currency: Yemeni rial (YER)
  • ISO Country Codes: YE, YEM
  • International Calling Code: +967
  • Top-Level Domain: .ye